philosophy important ideas or concepts
indicate and explain the important ideas or concepts that are expressed in the quotes.
1) indicate the source of the term or concept (2) provide a brief definition of the term or concept, and (3) explain the importance of the term or concept, perhaps by using an example (from the text or one that we talked about in class that fits the term or concept)
(1) indicate the author and text (I will not include this information on the test); (2) indicate and explain the important ideas or concepts that are expressed in the quote. Some concepts are relevant to more than one quote.
“And we apply predicates to God [by analogy], not purely equivocally or univocally” (Aquinas, 16).
“When we think of a golden mountain, we only join two consistent ideas, gold, and mountain, with which we were formerly acquainted” (Hume, 11). because, from our own feeling, we can conceive virtue; and this we may unite to the figure and shape of a horse, which is an animal familiar to us
“[All] our ideas or more feeble impressions are copies of our impressions or more lively ones” (Hume, 11).
all the materials of thinking are derived either from our outward or inward sentiment: the mixture and composition of these belongs alone to the mind and will
“The contrary of every matter of fact is still possible […]” (Hume, 15).
because it can never imply a contradiction, and is conceived by the mind with the same facility and distinctness, as if ever so conformable to reality
“In vain, therefore, should we pretend to determine any single event, or infer any cause or effect, without the assistance of observation and experience” (Hume, 19).
“These two propositions are far from being the same, I have found that such an object has always been attended with such an effect, and I foresee, that other objects, which are, in appearance, similar, will be attended with similar effects” (Hume, 22).
“[It] is not reasoning which engages us to suppose the past resembling the future […]” (Hume, 25).
“The maxim by which we commonly conduct ourselves in our reasonings, is, that the objects, of which we have no experience, resemble those, of which we have” (Hume, 78).
“When we infer any particular cause from any effect, we must proportion the one to the other […]” (Hume, 93).
“It is impossible for you to know anything of the cause, but what you have antecedently, not inferred, but discovered to the full in the effect” (Hume, 97).
We do not experience mere patches of colors or unrelated sounds and other bits of sensation. Instead, we experience a world of meaningful objects” (Lawhead, 131).
“I can analyze my concept of the uniting of seven and ?ve as long as I please—I shall never ?nd 12 in it” (Kant, 9).
“Things are given to us as objects of our senses, existing outside us, but we know nothing of what they are in themselves” (Kant, 21). [Here, talk about the difference between Kant and Idealism (e.g., Berkeley).]
“Every particular experience is only a part of the whole domain of experience; but the absolute whole of all possible experience is not itself an experience […]” (Kant, 45).
“For the I isn’t a concept, but only a designation of the object of inner sense insofar as we know it by no further predicate” (Kant, 50).
What is an Antinomy, according to Kant? Why does Kant think the various Antinomies arise in human thinking? How do we avoid them? [You might think of answering by explaining one of the Antinomies, e.g., the first one.] [You can use either Prolegomena Part III or the “Dialectic” from the Critique of Pure Reason to answer this one.]
“[It] would be absurd for us to hope that we can know more of any object than belongs to the possible experience of it […]. But on the other hand it would be even more absurd if we rejected things in themselves […]” (Kant, 61).
“But we stop at this boundary if we limit our judgment merely to how the world may relate to a being whose very concept lies beyond the reach of any knowledge we are capable of within the world” (Kant, 65).
Key Terms – Please be able to: (1) indicate the source of the term or concept (i.e. a text or classroom discussion), (2) provide a brief definition of the term or concept, and (3) explain the importance of the term or concept, perhaps by using an example (from the text or one that we talked about in class that fits the term or concept).
Impression vs. Idea Relations of Ideas vs. Matters of Fact
Copernican Revolution [see Lawhead] Empirical Concepts vs. Pure Concepts [see also Lawhead]
Phenomena [see also Lawhead] Noumena [see also Lawhead]
Synthetic a priori [see also Lawhead] Analytic a priori
Synthetic a posteriori [see also Lawhead] Boundary vs. Limit [see Conclusion]
Incongruent Counterparts [see sections 12-13] Sensibility vs. Understanding vs. Reason [see Kant Charts]
Regulative Idea vs. Constitutive Idea [see also Lawhead] Symbolic Anthropomorphism [see Conclusion]
Categorical Imperative Hypothetical Imperative
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