• 3) Choose one of the therapies that you are most interested in, and write an in-depth research paper on your choice. This paper should be at least 8 pages in length, double-spaced using size 12 font and standard margins, and include ONLY scholarly sources (no websites, newspapers, or magazines). You should address the history of the therapy, its advocates, how it is applied, its effectiveness, and what disorders or conditions it is most useful for. THIS CAN BE ONE OF THE THERAPIES EXPLORED IN ONE OF THE PREVIOUS ASSIGNMENTS. You should also address how the therapy can be part of the trans-theoretical approach, and integrated into eclectic forms of therapy.
The purpose of this study is to further explore theories and approaches to counseling and therapy, along with comparisons and research that explains the evidence for each approach’s effectiveness. Current as well as traditional approaches will be addressed.
By the end of the term, students who have actively participated in this study should be able to evaluate the various therapies studied, analyze their effectiveness, create a case study based on one or more of the approaches in the text, and synthesize overall how the therapies contribute to an eclectic and trans-theoretical approach to counseling and therapy.
text Systems of Psychotherapy-A Transtheoretical Analysis, 8th Edition, by Prochaska and Norcross (ISBN: ISBN-13: 978-1133314516) and Brain2Brain by Arden
you can use my 2 papers that i have already done
1. My analyze Psychoanalytic and Behavior therapies
2. Case Study
Counseling and Therapy
Psychoanalytic therapy is a form of treatment that explores the influence of unconscious mind on behaviors and thoughts. Change in psychological settings is commonly related to the mental condition of a person. Behavior change is gradual and also takes a lengthy time to rectify or correct. Therapists solve a psychological issue by first analyzing the problem and its possible causes. The therapy has been developed from theories of Sigmund Freud who laid the foundation for modern psychology and founder of psychoanalysis. The mind is the central operational platform that influences one’s behavior and also guides the thoughts. Behavior therapy can play a vital role in correcting such behaviors through inducing n alternate stimuli.
This kind of therapy tends to track down one’s lifetime starting from childhood to offer a solution to events at hand. The therapy also checks at recent events that might have triggered the issue being addressed thus analyzing one’s lifetime occurrences. The therapy is meant to offer solutions to an individual seeking psychological help on an issue. Psychoanalytic therapy is mostly termed as long-term choice as it can take weeks, months or even years depending on the nature of psychological issue being handled. Also, the therapy seeks to make a deep-seated analysis and changes in a person’s personality and mind thoughts structure (Marmor, 2012).
Psychoanalytic therapy is also based on several assumptions that can be traced back to Freud’s theory of mental stability and mind forming. One of the assumptions that are common in all kinds of therapies is that psychological issues are rooted or formed in the unconsciousness.
Unresolved issues and suppressed trauma of unpleasant memories or occurrences can also trigger a psychological upset. Memories are known to be the major causes of psychological upsets that also trigger mental instability due to unpleasant thoughts (Janis, 2013); (Stone, 2013). Thoughts of regrets or pain cause one to feel awful thus leading to psychological problems.
For a physician to understand the origin of a psychological problem, the individual is required to talk it out and its related issues. This stage is referred to as association where the individual is required to admit and own the problem by stating it to the therapist. This stage involves taking a listen to the flow of memories and recalling the problem and its associated causes (Krakow, Johnston, Melendrez, Hollifield, Warner, Chavez-Kennedy & Herlan, 2014). The therapist uses the information given by the individual to track the patterns or events that may be related to the problem.
Application of in Real Life
Psychoanalytic therapy has numerous uses particularly for those with specific emotional concerns or psychological issues. The therapy can be applied to those who want to explore themselves or find out the origin of thoughts or feelings. It is one of the useful long-term therapies that helps one seek solution focused approaches to disturbing emotions or feelings. This kind of therapy has also been used in medical satiation where doctors assess the emotional life of a patient to offer appropriate treatment. The approach is useful since some illnesses have links with the mental state of a patient thus making it easy to diagnose and treat the individual. Psychoanalytic therapy can also be used to solve some issues like work-related stress, relationship difficulties, sexual issues, and anxiety. It is also used to solve issues of phobia and social shyness. Other psychological issues that can be solved through the therapy include low self-esteem and sleeping difficulties (Stone, 2013).
The assumptions explain that it is difficult for a physician to show a tangible evidence of the problem but rather relate the issue to a certain event or thoughts. The mind is the central sections that thoughts are formed and physicians relate a psychological problem to thoughts of a victim. Also, the therapy is based on the assumption that manifest symptoms of any issue originate from hidden disturbances. The daily events and encounters shape one’s thoughts and can sometimes take a negative path thus causing a psychological problem.
Supportive therapy is a form of prolonged treatment aimed at making continuous positive changes by assisting a person overcomes a psychological issue. In most cases, supportive therapy does not entirely eradicate the issue but assist the victim to gradually recover or put up with the problem. This form of therapy does not serve for cases of extreme psychological or mental issues since it only acts as a cushion against the effects of the problem. A major goal in conducting a supportive therapy is to bring conflicts or issues to the surface or make it easy for the individual to deal with the problem (Prochaska, & Norcross, 2013); (Krakow, Johnston, Melendrez, Hollifield, Warner, Chavez-Kennedy & Herlan, 2014). It is a reliable treatment that helps stabilize the mind and thoughts of an individual. It changes one’s perspective and attitude towards life by cultivating positive thoughts thus eliminating negativity that can cause psychological issues.
Application of Supportive Therapy
Supportive therapy can be used in numerous situations to help an individual recover from any kind of psychological problem. Therapists also use this kind of therapy to track down the life occurrence of their clients thus making it easy to offer advice or treatment. In some extreme cases, the therapy can be used to solve issues for those with obsession-based behavior concerns. Supportive therapy is a great form of healing that enables people to realize themselves or have a strong sense of self.
Behavioral therapy mostly works with a specific form of circumscribed symptoms and changes in behavior. Behavioral techniques are mainly used for children with various behavior issues like bed wetting, phobias, and tantrums. Correct an issue with one’s behavior starts with analyzing the environment of the individual to determine the triggers of the behavioral changes.
Children who receive this kind of therapy can rectify some behavioral issues like bed wetting thus making positive behavioral changes. Behavior therapy is a form of psychological-based treatment that does not foster awareness. Although this kind of therapy was identified with animals in the laboratory, behaviorists have used it on patients and therapists have incorporated behavioral techniques in the psychological treatments. The behavioral problem dealt with using behavior therapy mainly relate to mental or psychological conditions. Examples of behaviors dealt with using behavior therapy include addiction, phobias, shyness, and anxiety (Nickerson, Bryant, Silove & Steel, 2011); (Marmor, 2012). Therapists use various strategy of eradicating the issue by first exploring the origin and nature of the problem. Therapists also look for thoughts and feelings that may have triggered the behavior thus advising the victim accordingly. Behavior therapy can also be used jointly with the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to behavioral problem in a person. Although effective, behavior therapy may take a long time before the desired change is reached.
Application of Behavior Therapy
Behavior therapy can be used in correcting unwanted behavior in children that may be acquired or learnt. Other forms of behaviors in children that can be corrected through behavior therapy relate to age characteristics. Young children have numerous issues with behavior mainly since they have little knowhow or adaptability to the environment (Krakow, Johnston, Melendrez, Hollifield, Warner, Chavez-Kennedy & Herlan, 2014). Other behaviors may be acquired out of certain changes in the surroundings thus leading to the overall change in behavior in a child. People with drug addiction issues are undertaken an extensive and lengthy behavior therapy to help them regain their normal and stable state of mind. Mental health issues can also be corrected using behavior therapy where a victim is taken through a series of test and treatments to correct or minimize the problem (Janis, 2013). In clinical conditions, behavior therapy is useful in analyzing the conditions of the patient to identify whether a change in behavior may have triggered the illness.
Concrete issues require extensive and lengthy treatment to correct the identified behavior. Applied behavior analysis is where then change to be attained is driven by reinforcement treatment or conditioned change of behavior. Cognitive behavior therapy also applies to extensive issue that requires a lengthy period of treatment to correct the problem. Individuals with addiction issues are treated using cognitive behavior therapy to help them recover and modify their behaviors. There are numerous forms of behavior therapy that can be used depending on the behavior issue being addressed. Therapists use classical conditioning element under behavior therapy to correct the identified problem or addiction in a person (Marmor, 2012). Some techniques are also applied to bring about behavior change without interfering with the psychological state of the individual.
Solution Focused Therapy
Solution Focused Therapy is a form of psychological treatment that seeks to establish the cause of a problem and offer a lasting solution. Therapists use this form of therapy to analyze the trends in one’s life to understand the cause of a psychological problem and later come up with a solution. The use of solution focused therapy begins with first analyzing the situation and understanding the possible causes of the behavior change. Solution focused therapy seeks to eradicate problems emanating from psychological issues in people (Prochaska, & Norcross, 2013). The issue being addressed may be acquired or learnt and therapists use this to determine how to approach the issue. Solution focused therapy is mainly focused on solving an issue by using an existing strong point in a person. For example, an issue with low self-esteem can be solved by enabling the person develop self-confidence. The thoughts that trigger such psychological or mental issues are mostly caused by external occurrences in the surroundings.
Application of Solution Focused Therapy
Solution focused therapy applies and can be used in different situation since it aims at finding a solution to psychological problems. Solution focused therapy can be used to correct issues with adoption and anxiety. It enables one understand the source of thoughts and how he or she can keep of unpleasant thoughts (Prochaska, & Norcross, 2013); (Janis, 2013). The therapy also
helps one identify the origin of the issue at hand and also offer solutions aimed at transforming one’s emotional development.
Similarities between Psychoanalytic and Behavior Therapy
Both psychoanalytic and behavioral therapies can be sued to correct a psychological issue in people particularly those associated with adopted behavior.
Another similarly is that psychoanalytic and behavioral therapies are aimed at analyzing the origin of the issue and offering a solution based on the nature of the identified issue.
Both supportive and solution focused therapies provide a long-term outlet in a situation but do not offer a step by step solution.
Both psychoanalytic and behavioral therapies are long-term solutions that may take weeks, months or even years before the issue is completely addressed.
Both psychoanalytic and behavior therapy can be used in clinical conditions to reverse health issue related to psychological or behavioral change.
While psychoanalytic therapy seeks to make deep-seated changes in a person’s emotional development, behavioral therapy explores and corrects issues with one’s behavior.
Supportive therapy does not provide a lasting solution to the identified problem but rather provides an alternative outlet in a situation.
Psychoanalytic therapy focuses on emotional and psychological issues while behavior therapy aims at healing behavior issues.
In conclusion, counseling and therapy play a vital role in restoring the normal psychological and behavioral state of a person. Change in behavior or psychological upsets is mainly triggered by the surroundings or occurrences in an individual’s life. Behavior change can also be caused by an internal issue that relates to one’s self-esteem or attitude towards something. Children develop phobia over certain things depending on how they perceive or approach them. Therapy helps resolve the existing issue sin one’s self-esteem and attitude thus changing the unwanted behavior. Bad occurrences in one’s life are known to be the major causes of psychological issues that also add up to mental problems if it gets intense.
Janis, I. L. (2013). Psychological Stress: Psychoanalytic and Behavioral Studies of Surgical Patients. Academic Press.
Krakow, B., Johnston, L., Melendrez, D., Hollifield, M., Warner, T. D., Chavez-Kennedy, D., & Herlan, M. J. (2014). An open-label trial of evidence-based cognitive behavior therapy for nightmares and insomnia in crime victims with PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Marmor, J. (Ed.). (2012). The Interface between the Psychodynamic and Behavioral Therapies. Springer Science & Business Media.
Nickerson, A., Bryant, R. A., Silove, D., & Steel, Z. (2011). A critical review of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorders in refugees. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(3), 399-417.
Prochaska, J., & Norcross, J. (2013). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Tran’s Theoretical Analysis. Cengage Learning.
Stone, L. (2013). The widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis. New Ideas in Psychoanalysis: The Process of Change in Humanistic Science, 297.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Mary is a 21 year old college student but lately has been skipping her classes due to excessive shyness which came out of nowhere. Her consultation to her psychiatrist came when she exhibited extreme anxiety in a restaurant when she was with her mother one weekend. When she was about to eat the food that she ordered, she suddenly just shook hard that she went red, that anxiety struck her and that she almost was on the edge of running away from the dining table to escape eating with other people. Her mother saw this change in her behavior and prompted her mother to seek professional help so she can be assisted in whatever she was or had been experiencing.
Based on Mary’s history has a normal family background. Her father and mother are together and have been married for 40 years already. She has two siblings, older brothers who grew up along with her. She has a good, normal childhood. She never has had any serious accident that could have damaged her head or her brain. More than this, she was born natural without any hassle or problem according to her mother.
Mary also has a normal schooling. She went to a great elementary school and said her stay there was normal and she enjoyed much of her time playing with her classmates. She was even seen in class as somebody that had a superior beauty and physical atrributes. Her high school days were also normal saying she had a good time there, as she had a lot of good friends, whom she spent time watching movies, hanging out and trying out new things like strolling in the mall and even drinking from time to time. Yes, she did try to smoke some marijuana but she said she only did it once and never liked the feeling of being high on it.
Her symptoms started when she would avoid going to social gatherings, fearing that she would be evaluated, judged or embarrassed by the people there. She used to go out with her friends and usually can even go alone to eat out in fastfood and restaurants but lately, she has been avoiding this kind of activity. She said she has a fear of going in places where there are group of people mingling around and see these people as threatening and that they would laugh or bully her.
In school, she started having a fear of speaking in front of the class and calls it stage fright, which is normal for her age. But this stage fright grew uncontrollably when she skipped her speech class fearing she will stand and speak before the class. She would think for weeks without end about the challenge of standing before her class and speaking and the thoughts that would enter her mind were something that she could not bear. It paralyzed and stressed her a lot. Yet, she said her fear started out of nowhere.
Thinking about what is happening with her, all she could do was to attribute her anxiety to everything social to her older brother whom she said had bullied her when they were still young. She said, her brother would bully her until she would cry in the corner, feeling helpless. She said the feeling of being bullied by her brother is something that is the same feeling she is now experiencing whenever she would attend social gathering or any activity wherein there are people involved. Now, she barely could attend her classes, saying she feels anxious and usually have hot flashes in her body. She also said that this makes her blush, which she hates a lot. This is the last semester before she can graduate from college and her parents are worried that she would waste this time to such a condition.
These days, she spends most of her time at home, watching TV and youtube, and does the household chores. Though there are times when she would go out alone, to jog or do some errands. Yet, her contact with other people is limited to her immediate family. She no longer sees her friends and does not want to go out more.
When she went for a consultation with a psychologist, she appeared composed, relaxed and seemed normal. Yet, she said she really could not get her courage to go out and do normal activities of her age.
Mary is diagnosed as suffering from condition called social phobia. This condition is sometimes can be attributed to genes or, in other words, run in the family. Yet, medical professionals and practitioners are not sure why some people have it while some people don’t, Based on research findings, there are several parts in the brain that is involved in anxiety and fear. By researching on these parts of the brain, scientist are hoping they can find better treatment for this kind of condition. Researchers are also looking at the roles played by environment as well as stress factors.
Symptoms for this condition are listed below:
People with social phobia usually are very anxious at being with other people and exhibit a hard time talking or conversing with them, no matter how they want they could.
• Usually feel self-conscious and embarrassed when in front of other people.
• They are usually afraid that people may judge, evaluate and embarrass them in public.
• They stay away from places and situation where there are other people.
• They have a hard time making friends as well as keeping old friends.
• When they are around people, they tend to sweat, blush or tremble.
• They usually feel sick in the stomach or nauseous when they are with other people.
Treatment and Therapies
Treatment for social phobia is usually medication and psychotherapy or more specifically Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) (“Social Phobia”, n.d.).
Psychotherapy is usually used in particular CBT in treating social phobia. This kind of therapy is wherein it teaches the patient to have a different ways of thinking, reacting and behaving to situations where he or she will feel less fearful or anxious. This can also help the patient to learn and practice new social skills.
Medication also can come along with treating people with social phobia or anxiety. The psychotherapist can prescribe certain medication to alleviate the feeling of anxiety of the patient. The most typical and common medication for social phobia or anxiety are antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. Anti-anxiety medications are known to be powerful and this medication has many different types.
Anti-depressant are also helpful for those people with social phobia or anxiety problem. This type of medication is commonly used to treat this condition and more used than anti-anxiety medicines. Anti-depressant may take some time to work, usually weeks to show any sign of effectiveness. Yet, this may cause some side effects such as headache, difficulty in sleeping and nausea.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or CBT is considered to be one of the common therapy treatments for social phobia or anxiety. This approach is a collaborative therapy between the therapist and the patient to effectively treat or cure the patient’s anxiety (Heimberg, 2002). The main components of this therapy are psycho-education, exposure, cognitive restructuring and homework.
In pycho-education, the patient is taught about the relationship between thoughts, emotions and, lastly, the physiological reactions.
In cognitive-restructuring, this involves the correction of inaccurate or negative cognitions. This is based on the premise that those who suffer from social anxiety or phobia have incorrect belief regarding dangers in social situations, have flawed prediction on the outcome of these social situations, and lastly, have biased brain processing when in social gathering, events or situations – sometimes called “mental filter” (Heimberg, 2002).
In exposure, this essentially is consisted of role playing activities in the goal to get the patient face his or fear. During the process of exposure, the client is taught how to remain focus on the given situation – this entails not using any safety behaviors with the use of distractions to lessen the degree of anxiety). When patient remains focus with the experience, this will increase his level of anxiety but later on will subside or decrease overtime. Heimberg (2002) explained that as the physiological arousal that is associated with the anxiety is typically finite, this will eventually decrease or dissipate in due time.
For homework, the patient is taught how to identify distorted thoughts when they naturally occur. This entails sometimes assigning exposure exercises by which patients can do.
For the treatment of Mary she will be taught how to distinguish her thoughts to her emotions as well as her physiological reactions. She will be taught about the relationship of thoughts and emotions and what sensations or feeling this produces in her body. By letting her learn how to put separately these elements she will learn how to manage them properly, thus in the end can lead to her lessening the anxiety that she feels.
She will also taught how to alter or change her biases or mental filter. The therapist will let her realize that what her usual thoughts or interpretation of reality is not usually accurate or correct. When she realizes this, she is expected to feel better and with lessened anxiety and phobia.
To further the lessening of her anxiety in social gathering and situations, she will be exposed to them. If she feared attending social gatherings and eating alone in crowded place, it will be suggested to her to attend inspite of her anxious feelings. Her familiarity with the situation can help her decrease her reaction to it thus lessening her anxiety. The therapist can also assist her by teaching her how to eat in a crowded place and be immune in having a reaction to them. Lastly, she will be taught how to know her distorted thoughts and give her tools, like exposure, to remedy these distorted thoughts.
Heimberg, R.G. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: Current status and future directions. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 101-108.
“Social Phobia”, (n.d.). Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder). Retrieved on January 28, 2016 from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/social-phobia-social-anxiety-disorder/index.shtml
I. Description of issue(s), topic(s) or situation(s) addressed (9 pts.)
a. Provided a review of relevant literature
b. Described the focus of each of your choice and how it relates to case management
c. Identified key aspects of each issue, topic, or situation, as well as how they justify case management interventions
II. Critique of each approach (8 pts.)
a. Identified any “gaps” present in each assignment with regard to case management and how they might be addressed
b. Justified the importance of the each topic’s contribution to an overall integrative approach of case management
c. Assessed each topic’s usefulness in explaining case management
III. Organization & other logistics (8 pts.)
a. Assignment was appropriate length to explain and analyze each topic
b. Assignment was well written or presented, and clearly organized (introduction, body, conclusion)
c. Assignment advanced a clear central thesis
d. Assignment was professionally presented and free of typographical, spelling, grammatical and/or verbal errors, if applicable.
e. Assignment highlighted aspects of case management in a way that complemented class discussions & readings