Briefly explain Islamism as a political, civil conservative movement vs. Islamic fundamentalism in relation to Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution and Islamic dictatorial régime, as well as Islamist-Jihadi terrorism/insurgencies (Al-Qaeda, Afghanistan, Iraq) as threats to US-Western security since the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US or later ones in Europe and world-wide.
Goldschmidt Jr., Arthur, and Lawrence Davidson. A Concise History of the Middle East, 11th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013. Print. ISBN-13: 978-0-8133-4962-6