Read the following case studies to help inform the assignment.
Case Study: Doug
Grade: Second Grade, 2nd Semester
Doug loves science and hands-on activities. He is interested in dinosaurs and robots, and enjoys using the computer to play games. Doug has shared that he likes putting together Lego sets and has brought several in to the classroom to share. Doug, however, is not performing well at school. His teacher and parents are concerned. He is failing grade-level requirements in reading and math, even though he has tested at grade level in these areas. Doug does have an identified learning disability and receives resource room assistance in written expression.
Doug gets easily frustrated when he has to copy and write assignments in any subject. He does have a computer available to use in the classroom as needed. His second grade teacher, Mr. McGrady, believes Doug is capable of doing the work required in class. Mr. McGrady has noted that Doug participates in class discussions and hands-on activities; however, he avoids and rarely starts assignments by himself. Mr. McGrady reports that while other students begin assignments, Doug can be found fiddling with “Lego gadgets” and drawing robots. Getting Doug started on most independent activities is like pulling teeth. Based on this information, Mr. McGrady has selected these goals for Doug to achieve within the next three months:
• Begin independent work assignments promptly.
• Increase the number of completed assignments.
Case Study: Ellie
Grade: Ninth grade, 1st semester
Ellie is a ninth grader who has just moved to the community from another city. She is quiet and withdrawn and does not appear to have made many new friends. She often sits alone in the back of the classroom and does not volunteer responses, offer ideas, or engage in class discussions. While she does most, if not all, of the independent work required of her, she does not actively participate in any partner or cooperative activities. She avoids group contact by reading or drawing quietly or asking to be excused to go to the restroom, locker, or office. From all the information the teachers have gathered and their observations, Ellie appears to be able to read and write at grade level.
Mr. Salinas, Ellie’s English teacher, becomes concerned when Ellie’s failure to participate in group activities begins to cause some resentment among her peers. Some students say they do not want to be placed in a group with Ellie because “She won’t help out and it just drags us down. It’s like she doesn’t even know we’re there.” This problem is also beginning to affect Ellie’s grade in English class because several of the semester competencies and assignments require peer and group interaction. There are upcoming small group literature discussion activities and peer editing and writing support groups. Mr. Salinas believes Ellie is capable of the work and sets the following goals for her to achieve by the end of the semester:
• Increase her participation in class discussions and conversations.
• Interact effectively within literature discussion activities and peer editing or writing groups.
Based on the case studies, review the following strategies that encourage positive behavior:
• Specific praise
• Criterion specific rewards
• Effective rules
• Contingent instructions
• Group contingency
In a 750-1,000-word response, identify and analyze one of the above strategies for each case study that would be most effective in reaching the stated goals. In addition, discuss implementation of the selected strategies in a classroom and any cautions for its use. Defend your choices with supporting details and examples.
Cite a minimum of two scholarly resources within your response.