Religion and Theology

Paper Question: The question of whether or not Confucianism is a religion originated with the Western encounter with Asian traditions. Based only on your readings of early Confucian texts ( Analects, Xunzi, Mencius), what is the evidence for and against the classification of Confucianism as “religion”? ( You will need to begin with a definition of religion.)

format: 3-pages limit(-900-1000 words) papers: You need to make your argument concisely in 3
pages. You should avoid lengthy introductions and conclusions. Use parenthetical
citation indicating author and page numbers: Use MLA style.

Introduction of Essay: definition of religion, thesis( Confucianism is/is not a religion) and why
Argument,reason : evidences(Citation,primary sources), back up and argue with personal
Conclusion: back up thesis

use 1-3 will help to answer the above question: if Confucianism is a religion. Focus on the reading on 4 is the only sources allow to be used as citation. Please only use primary sources directly from “Analects” “Xunzi” ” Mencicus” file for citation. Quote only original Analects texts or Xunzi, Mencicus Texts.


1. to learn about Chinese Religion, please go to


* see attachment file “selections from religions of China”,
inside file, a) “Religions of China in Practice” P3-P51
b) P4-P7 specially talk about Confucianism

2. to learn about Confucianism, please see attachment file “Confucian”
inside file, P147-P155 “The confusion Tradition in China” Keith Knapp
from book “Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Chinese Religions” compare and learn different type of ancient writing in Chinese religion, please see attachment file”Spellbinding” and “Sommer”
inside” Spellbinding” file, P241-250 talk about spellbinding
inside ” Sommer” talk about oracle bone inscription
is it the demons Spellbinding talk about is a religion believe?
is the heaven and ancestry oracle bone inscription about is a religion believe?
how about Confucianism, is it a religion believe, why or why not? What is your
use the different of the two texts in turn of religion view point and social status. people believe to discuss if Confucian is a religion.

also inside file “Mu-Chou Poo” talk about personal welfare

part 3 reading only help to answer the thesis questions ” if Confucianism is religion” do not
quote or spend too much time discuss this part, part 4( Analects, Xunzi, Mencicus) are primary writing in this paper.


### 4.Only use the primary sources from the following texts ( Analects, Xunzi, Mencius) as the evidence for and against the classification of Confucianism as “religion”. Please do not use any other outside sources like wiki or anything else, only use the following 3 files. Since the essay is

a)”Analects” see attachment file
b)”Xunzi” see attachment file
c)”Mencicus” see attachment file

The Analects (Chinese: ??; pinyin: L�ny?; literally: “Edited Conversations”), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been written by Confucius’ followers. It is believed to have been written during the Warring States period (475 BC�221 BC), and it achieved its final form during the mid-Han dynasty (206 BC�220 AD).

The Mencius (Chinese: ??; pinyin: M�ngz?), is a collection of anecdotes and conversations of the Confucian thinker and philosopher Mencius on topics in moral and political philosophy. Mencius was a disciple of one of the students of Zisi, a grandson of Confucius, and the Mencius records his travels and audiences with the various rulers of the Warring States period, his students, and his other contemporaries.[1][2] A number of linguistic and textual clues suggest that the text was not written by Mencius himself but by his disciples,[1] probably during the late 4th century BC.

The Xunzi ([?y?n ts??]; Chinese: ??; Wade�Giles: Hs�n-tzu) is an ancient Chinese collection of philosophical writings attributed to the 3rd century BC Realist Confucian philosopher Xun Kuang. In the Xunzi, Xun Kuang distinguishes what is born in man and what must be learned through rigorous education.[1] Though Confucian, the Xunzi may also be considered a root canonical writing of the Chinese Legalist “School”. Its essays are often critical of competing schools, such as Daoism and Mohism, as well as rival schools within Confucianism. Some of the more significant chapters are[


Tip: There are really only 5 texts attached from this email( “Spellbinding” you can find from New Compressed folder, ” Oracle bone inscription” you can find from new compressed folder, “Analects”, “Xunzi”, ” Mencius”) . Others are just background reading. Would people follow these writing/thought from the texts as some kind of religion practice, such as performing rituals? If Analects, Xunzi, and Mencius are more like philosophy instead of a religion, why people follow them? What can people get by reading and following their thought? Isn’t it religion is what people believe in? Does religion has to has some kind of systematic way? Some people think what things talk about inside Analects, Xunzi, Mencius are religion. They follow them as like following a bible? Inside Spellbinding, people believe in demons who harm their life and home. Spellbinding teach people how to recolonize different demons and deal with it. Do you think this is religion? Why or why not? In oracle bone inscription text, only royal family or king can perform ritual to talk to God, heaven. They care more about long life, kingdom destiny, and something they don’t know so they ask GOD. in Spellbinding, people believe they can do something against the super power so they have different ways to deal with different demons. What about in Analects? What about in Xunzi?What about in Mencins? What make them religion or not a religion? No need to quote from Spellbinding and Oracle bone inscription cause they are not part of the reading text but can be use in discuss to support idea of religion and Confucianism. If you can answer the question why Spellbinding and oracle bone are religion believe or not a religion believe, make a transition to start talk about Confucianism. That should be the introduction part along with definition of religion.