Discuss the roles that sodium ions perform in the body.
Sodium is the most common cation in the body. Its concentration is much greater in the
extracellular fluid than in the intracellular fluid. You could discuss the maintenance of this
difference by the “sodium/potassium pump”. You should describe the normal concentrations of
sodium in the body. You could discuss how the concentration of sodium in the blood is regulated by
aldosterone and ANP, and is monitored by osmo-receptors in the hypothalamus. You may choose to
discuss sodium’s involvement in the transmission of an action potential; in the reabsorption of
water from the kidney filtrate; or sodium’s role in fluid and electrolyte balance or in hypertension.
Guidelines for submission (draft scored out of 5, 1st submission /40, revision /20)
All essays must:
1. Be about 1400 words in length (not counting ref list and citations) AND be double-lined spaced and word-processed.
2. Use a variety of published textboooks such as: Anatomy and Physiology; Physiology; Pathophysiology; Physical
science texts, Medical texts, and Journal articles. Be referenced using the Author-Date (ie the Harvard) System.
3. Show evidence of careful library research from published sources (DO NOT cite WIKIPEDIA, about.com etc.
or personal/commercial/institutional web pages. However e-copies of articles from published journals or books
ARE allowed, but don’t give the web address or “viewed on” date). Don’t cite your lecture handouts or dictionaries!
4. QUOTATION AND PARAPHRASING
Quotations are almost never used in science essays! If they are, quotations should only be used where there is
something very special about the expression used in the quoted passage which would be lost if it was expressed
differently. The essay should then go on to explain the significance of the expression used.
Paraphrasing WILL be necessary but this must involve the expression of ideas in your own words and not just a
modification of a set of words already used by someone else.
5. Your assignment MUST have the following sub-headings within the text:
Introduction: This will introduce the content of the essay topic by giving some relevant background and explicitly tell
the marker what theme or approach to the topic the essay will follow, what will & will not be discussed (your essay
will not cover everything). It will not restate the question.
Descriptive subheadings between the introduction and summary, there should be several subheadings that are
pertinent to the content of your essay
Summary: A brief summary of the major points that you have made in the essay. New material should not be
introduced in the summary.
References: (not a bibliography!): ……in the Harvard style = author, year of pub, title, (then for books: state the
publisher, city – or for journals: state the journal title, vol(issue) pages).
In order to be judged satisfactory your essay must AT LEAST:
1. Be substantially free of spelling errors, serious grammatical errors and examples of incomplete or awkwardly
2. Be divided into appropriate subheadings, and have references cited often enough for appropriate content.
3. Show mastery of the content that has been discussed.
4. Demonstrate that you are able to use the Harvard system correctly (cite author, year, use page numbers for citing
books in essay – but not in reference list).
HLTH1004 Essay Marksheet: 2016 (attach this to your essay)
First submission (Due date = Monday 9th May, by 3.00pm of week 9)
Student’s name: Marks
Scope of research:
Was a variety of textbook references used? (between 6 &12 refs are sufficient)
Were relevant journal articles used? /6
Construction of essay:
Does the Introduction make it clear what ideas or what focus or what unifying concepts the author is going to
use/emphasise in their essay?
Does the Introduction give some background to the essay topic?
Is the essay thoughtfully put together so that a theme is evident?
Has the topic been analysed thoughtfully?
Does the author comment on the material cited?
Does the author make insightful comments about the essay content?
Has an effort been made to relate the material presented to the rest of the essay?
Have (appropriate) references been used well in essay’s construction ? /7
Referencing and citation:
Are refs cited often enough/cited correctly in essay, and presented Harvard style in ref list ?
Were web pages used? (they should NOT be)
Are page numbers cited for text books ?
Are sources paraphrased rather than quoted ?
Are all listed references cited (and vice versa!) /4
Is the essay organised by descriptive headings within the text?
Is similar content gathered together under the appropriate heading?
If diagrams were used, were they referred to in the text?
Does the discussion progress logically through the content that is included?
Is repetition avoided? /4
Is there enough basic science in the explanation/description in the essay ?
Has the appropriate content been included ?
Is the science content that is presented correct ?
Are scientific principles explained sufficiently to demonstrate the author’s understanding ?
Are examples given to support the discussion?
Is the level of science in the essay appropriate for a 1st year essay ?
Is the depth of discussion of the science content appropriate /15
Spelling & sentence/paragraph construction:
Are spelling mistakes few or unimportant ?
Is the discussion written in sentences ? (Lists or dot points should NOT EVER be used !)
Are sentences short, constructed grammatically and clear in their meaning ? /4
First marking /40
Second, Revised Submission Marksheet
(attach this to your 2nd submission)
Revision due: 6th June 2016
1. As well as the revised and modified version of your essay,
hand up your original essay & marksheet again attached to the
revised version (so we can compare the two).
2. In your revision, underline the changes that have been made so that the
marker can easily see where modifications have been made (and indicate
where deletions have been made). (so we can identify the changes)
□ deduct a mark if this marksheet is not attached
□ deduct a mark if the changes are not underlined
□ deduct a mark if the original marked essay (with its marksheet) is not attached
Revisions to essay
In the completed and revised essay, has the student adequately addressed the marker’s comments
from the first marking (by clarifying descriptions, adding scientific explanations & examples)?
Has the essay been modified at all places where the marker has made explicit comments ?
Has the student SHOWN INITIATIVE and used the general comments of the marker to identify
for themselves other places in their essay (which were not explicitly identified by the marker)
where improvements could be made (and made them) ?
Does the Summary summarise the main points of the essay ?
Does the Summarise avoid vacuous generalisations ?
New material should NOT be presented in the summary. /6
Second marking /20