The average expenditure on Valentine’s Day was expected to be $100.89 (USA Today, February 13, 2006). Do male and female consumers differ in the amounts they spend? The average expenditure in a sample survey of 40 male consumers was $135.67, and the average expenditure in a sample survey of 30 female consumers was $68.64. Based on past surveys, the standard deviation for male consumers is assumed to be $35, and the standard deviation for female consumers is assumed to be $20. The z value is 2.576 .